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- Crusade (Starfire, Book 2).
- Steven Soderbergh.
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Prof. Shahal Abbo
Clulow et al. Ford et al.
Chowdhury et al. Rubeena et al. Singh and Reddy , Collard et al. Four 6 cm replicated plates were used for each concentration. When the ZJ-1 colony on the negative control plate extended to two-thirds of the plate, mycelial growth on each plate was recorded. To determine whether the EC 50 of ZJ-1 was representative of the susceptibility of all Ascochyta pinodes isolates, five isolates were randomly picked from the remaining 64 isolates and tested for growth inhibition on PDA agar plates supplemented with individual fungicides at the EC 50 concentration of the ZJ-1 strain.
The experiment was repeated three times. Table 2. Toxicity of 14 fungicides against Ascochyta pinodes ZJ Bacterial isolates were recovered from the leaves, stem tissues, roots and rhizosphere soil of peas grown in the above-mentioned five fields using dilution plating methods Barraquio et al. Briefly, each sample was homogenized with a sterilized mortar and pestle.
Macerated samples were serially diluted with sterile 0.
All isolates were tested in triplicate. The non-antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis strain PY79 was used as a control strain. Shenzhen, China.
For each treatment, there were 3 replicates with 15 pots per replicate. After 4 weeks of growth, the seedlings were sprayed with a fungicide or a cell suspension of biocontrol agents with a hand-held atomizer until numerous droplets were deposited onto the surface of leaves.
The treatment without fungicides or antagonist bacteria application but inoculated with the ZJ-1 spore suspension was used as a control. Disease severity on the plant leaves and stems was rated 2 weeks after inoculation. The test of the efficiency of the fungicides and biocontrol agent was repeated twice under greenhouse condition. To test the efficiency of disease control in the field, seeds were sown into soil in November, , and disease control agents were applied in March, The fields were located in Haining, where ascochyta blight was occurring and causing severe losses every year.
The treatments, both fungicides and bacterial agents, were applied twice, at the initiation of flowering and mid-flowering during the growing season. The field trials were conducted using a randomized plot design with three replicates of each treatment. Appropriate fertilizers and herbicides were applied according to standard management practices. Disease severity on the plant leaves and stems was rated 2 weeks after the second application. A total of 30 pea seedlings were randomly chosen for disease severity survey in each plot. Based on the efficacy of fungicides according the EC 50 and their cost, five fungicides, including the tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, were tested in this study.
For the bacterial agents, Bacillus sp. Symptoms on foliage were visually estimated using a 0-to-5 scale Zhang et al. The infected field pea plant tissues collected from six sites in Zhejiang Province presented typical ascochyta blight symptoms, including black necrotic spots on leaves and pods, blackening at the base of the stem, and foot rot in seedlings Figure 1A.
A total of 65 single-pycnidiospore isolates were obtained from infected tissue samples.
Prof. Shahal Abbo | Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture
All of these isolates displayed dense and felty colony morphologies on the PDA plates. Colony color tended to gray and darken with age from the center to the edge Figure 1B. These colony morphological features resembled those reported for Ascochyta species. The virulence of all isolates was determined on pea leaves and pods. Typical symptoms are shown in Figure 1C ; the inoculums caused brown lesions on leaves and pods with an additional wide yellowish margin on pods. There was no significant difference in the virulence among all tested strains based on the size of leaf lesions data not shown.
Our results indicated that all 65 isolates were pathogenic and associated with the disease.