Guide Brittle Matrix Composites 7 (v. 7)

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Fracture Resistance Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Brittle Matrix Composites

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Conventional ceramics are very sensitive to thermal stress because of their high Young's modulus and low elongation capability. Temperature differences and low thermal conductivity create locally different elongations, which together with the high Young's modulus generate high stress.

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This results in cracks, rupture and brittle failure. In CMCs, the fibres bridge the cracks, and the components show no macroscopic damage, even if the matrix has cracked locally.

The application of CMCs in brake disks demonstrates the effectiveness of ceramic composite materials under extreme thermal shock conditions. These properties are determined by the constituents, namely the fibres and matrix. Ceramic materials in general are very stable to corrosion. The broad spectrum of manufacturing techniques with different sintering additives, mixtures, glass phases and porosities are crucial for the results of corrosion tests. Less impurities and exact stoichiometry lead to less corrosion.

Amorphous structures and non-ceramic chemicals frequently used as sintering aids are starting points of corrosive attack. Pure alumina shows excellent corrosion resistivity against most chemicals. Amorphous glass and silica phases at the grain boundaries determine the speed of corrosion in concentrated acids and bases and result in creep at high temperatures.


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These characteristics limit the use of alumina. For molten metals, alumina is used only with gold and platinum.


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  • Composite oxide fibers and brittle matrix composites based on them.

These fibres demonstrate corrosion properties similar to alumina, but commercially available fibres are not very pure and therefore less resistant. It also oxidises in strong oxidizing agents like concentrated nitric acid. In molten metals it dissolves and forms metal carbides. Carbon fibres do not differ from carbon in their corrosion behaviour. Pure silicon carbide is one of the most corrosion-resistant materials. The reaction with oxygen forms SiO 2 and CO 2 , whereby a surface layer of SiO 2 slows down subsequent oxidation passive oxidation. Silicon carbide fibres are produced via pyrolysis of organic polymers, and therefore their corrosion properties are similar to those of the silicon carbide found in LPI-matrices.

These fibres are thus more sensitive to bases and oxidizing media than pure silicon carbide. CMC materials overcome the major disadvantages of conventional technical ceramics, namely brittle failure and low fracture toughness, and limited thermal shock resistance.

Therefore, their applications are in fields requiring reliability at high-temperatures beyond the capability of metals and resistance to corrosion and wear.

Composite oxide fibers and brittle matrix composites based on them - IOPscience

In addition to the foregoing, CMCs can be used in applications, which employ conventional ceramics or in which metal components have limited lifetimes due to corrosion or high temperatures. Only ceramic materials are able to survive such conditions without significant damage, and among ceramics only CMCs can adequately handle thermal shocks.

The development of CMC-based heat shield systems promises the following advantages:. In these applications the high temperatures preclude the use of oxide fibre CMCs, because under the expected loads the creep would be too high. Several follow-up programs focused on the development, manufacture, and qualification of nose cap, leading edges and steering flaps for the NASA space vehicle X A total of five re-entry phases was simulated.

The next test — a real re-entry of the unmanned vehicle X — was cancelled for financial reasons. One of the space shuttles would have brought the vehicle into orbit, from where it would have returned to the Earth. These qualifications were promising for only this application. The high-temperature load lasts only around 20 minutes per re-entry, and for reusability, only about 30 cycles would be sufficient.

For industrial applications in hot gas environment, though, several hundred cycles of thermal loads and up to many thousands hours of lifetime are required. More than 40 European companies contributed to its construction. These components will function as the vehicle's heat shield during its atmospheric reentry. The use of CMCs in gas turbines permit higher turbine inlet temperatures, which improves turbine efficiency. Because of the complex shape of stator vanes and turbine blades, the development was first focused on the combustion chamber.

Generally, development continues of CMCs for use in turbines to reduce technical issues and cost reduction. The gallery below shows the flame holder of a crisp bread bakery as tested after for 15, hours, which subsequently operated for a total of more than 20, hours. Flaps and ventilators circulating hot, oxygen-containing gases can be fabricated in the same shape as their metal equivalents.


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The lifetime for these oxide CMC components is several times longer than for metals, which often deform. A further example is an oxide CMC lifting gate for a sintering furnace, which has survived more than , opening cycles. The weight reduction improves shock absorber response, road-holding comfort, agility, fuel economy, and thus driving comfort. Oxidation is therefore not a problem in this application. The reduction of manufacturing costs will decide the success of this application for middle-class cars. Conventional SiC, or sometimes the less expensive SiSiC , have been used successfully for more than 25 years in slide or journal bearings of pumps.

Very good corrosion resistance against practically all kinds of media, and very low wear and low friction coefficients are the basis of this success. These bearings consist of a static bearing, shrink-fitted in its metallic environment, and a rotating shaft sleeve, mounted on the shaft. A picture of such shaft sleeves is shown at the top of this article. This bearing system has been tested in pumps for liquid oxygen , for example in oxygen turbopumps for thrust engines of space rockets, with the following results.

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Tests have shown that the friction coefficient is half, and wear one fiftieth of standard metals used in this environment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. Cooke Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Kumagawa; H. Yamaoka; M Shibuysa; T.

Ymamura Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. Naslain; F. Langlais; R. Fedou Journal de Phys. Probst; T. Besman; D. Stinton; R. Lowden; T. Anderson; T. Starr Surface and Coatings Technology. Ziegler; I. Richter; D. Suttor Kotani; Y. Katoh; A. Khyama Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan. Rocha; C. Cairo; M. Graca Materials Science and Engineering: A.

Krenkel Simon International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology. Pritzkow Stoll; P. Mahr; H. Krueger; H.