Drawing on foreign precedent and the suggestion of Senator Peter Panin, the manifesto of established a special government office with jurisdiction over new settlers, the Chancery of Guardianship of Foreigners. The first head, Count Grigory Orlov, Catherine's common — law husband and leader of her seizure of the throne, personified the office's high status.
The new Russian immigration policy offered generous material incentives, promised freedom of religion and exemption from military recruitment, and guaranteed exemption from enserfment and freedom to leave. These provisions governed immigration policy until at least and for many decades thereafter. The manifesto of did not specifically exclude Jews, although Elizabeth's regime banned them as "Killers of Christ," for Catherine highly regarded their entrepreneurship and unofficially encouraged their entry into New Russia Ukraine in European immigrants responded eagerly to the manifesto, some twenty thousand arriving during Catherine's reign.
Germans settling along the Volga were the largest group, especially the Herrnhut Moravian Brethren settlement at Sarepta near Saratov and Mennonite settlements in southern Ukraine. Because of the empire's largely agrarian economy, most settlers were farmers. The expense of the program was large, however, so its cost — effectiveness is debatable. A century later many Volga Germans resettled in the United States , some still decrying Catherine's allegedly broken promises. See also: catherine ii ; jews ; orlov, grigory grigorievich; pale of settlement. Bartlett, Roger P. Khodarkovsky, Michael.
Several important volumes take as their starting point,but designate a different end point.
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The editors provide an excellent introduction to the volume which delves carefully into the processes of Westernization that so fundamentally marked Russia both before, during, and after the period under study. This introduction also contains a crucial calibration of Europeanization as it occurred in Russia compared to similar phenomena in other, more distinctly non-Western countries such as Japan and Turkey.
What follows are the essays of eleven scholars organized into seven chapters. The editors of the volume each contributed two essays and then also wrote introductions to each chapter to provide contextual background for the themes ahead. The entire volume is also brought together by a conclusion which draws together the partial singularities put forward in each case study.
Human Capital: The Settlement of Foreigners in Russia 1762-1804
Unfortunately, this leads to something of an unevenness in the volume, as the contributions of the editors compose more than half of the book. The volume was funded by a research grant awarded by the Leverhulme Trust and is merely the first of two books planned. All three of the editors hold advanced degrees in Russian and most of the contributors also hold PhDs in either history or Russian. One can only hope that the forthcoming second book will contain more perspectives, especially, perhaps, from the realms of sociology, art history, and sexuality studies.
Following from this, and as in many anthologies, the essays vary in quality and effectiveness. This section begins with an essay by Igor Fedyukin on shifting understandings of human nature and their effects on political thinking from the time of Peter to Elizabeth. Fedyukin focuses on balloting practices for promotion to commissioned ranks and correlates these procedures with understandings of human motives as either fundamentally self-interested or driven by honor and concern for the public good.
In order to flesh out the topic, Fedyukin conducts deep archival research, another characteristic of the volume as a whole, which brings much new data to light.
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Iosad explores the Kunstkamera, emblemata, and strange phenomena such as eclipses for how they were used to arouse a sense of curious wonder in members of the Russian court. Discusses settlement patterns that brought the German Russians to Texas, mostly through earlier settlements in Oklahoma and Kansas. Treatment differentiates the Volga Germans from the Black Sea Germans both in how they got to Texas as well as where they settled.
Figes, Orlando. Discusses the general situation surrounding the political, economic, and environmental build up to the Famine. Mentions specifically the massacre that occurred in the colony of Balzer on 15 March when Red Army soldiers in the Balzer church tower mowed down hundreds who had stormed the colony in search of food. Fleischhauer, Ingeborg and Pinkus, Benjamin.
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The Soviet Germans: Past and Present. Forsythe, James L. Frank, J. Thesis, Eden Theological Seminary, Giesinger, Adam. He deals in detail with all German settlements in Russia and all religious groups among them from to the present. The final chapter covers emigrants from Russia to the Americas. The book includes a useful chapter locating individual colonies within their geographical and governmental districts, twenty-seven pages of maps, and a bibliography of nearly items. Gilbert, Glenn G. Gingerich, Mark Phillip.
Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Includes a brief history of the Germans from Russia, history of German Russians in the Midwest and Colorado, songs from Germany and Russia including sheet music , features on German Russian Wedding Customs, German Russian Recipes, photographs of dances and musicians, extensive bibliography, discography, original sheet music by Paul Weingardt, German-Russian Folklore, and an explanation about how to play and dance a Dutch Hop.
Gregory, James S. New York: Pegasus, Griess, James Ruben. Hale, Douglas. The Germans from Russia in Oklahoma. Halverson, Carol. Volga German-Russians in Minnesota. Hamilton, Candy. Chapter 5 pp. There are many pictures of individual families. Haury, David A. Haynes, Emma S. German-Russians on the Volga and in the United States. Thesis, University of Colorado, A History of the Volga Relief Society.
Portland, OR: A. This is an important work on the famine in Russia during the s and the help extended to their families and friends by relatives in the United States. It describes how money and goods were collected in the United States and distributed among the German colonies along the Volga. The time span covered is from August until November Heitman, Sidney.
Germans from Russia on the Trail to Colorado. Hill, Alton D. Hoffmann, C. Gregynog: University of Wales Press, Hoffman, Stephanie. Iseminger, Gordon L. Jahraus, William L.
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Thesis, University of North Dakota, Johannes, Mary Eloise. Thesis, Catholic University of America, Johnson, Christopher. Johnson, David Christopher. Thesis, University of Kansas, Jones, Nathan Paul. Thesis, LaSalle University, Jordan, Terry G. Kachurovskaya, Anna.
Theme of the conference; Discussions on the social conditions of Russian Germans. Karklins, Rasma. Keck, Leander E. German-Russians in Europe and America. Thesis, Linfield College, Keel, William, ed. Keel, William D. Richard Beam, ed.
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