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Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 28 April In the stream of history: shaping foreign policy for a new era. Stanford University Press. OECD Observer. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia. Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 3 August Chicago Tribune. Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs. September Archived from the original on 16 September Retrieved 4 November Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. Retrieved 31 March European Voice. Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 7 May Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 3 June Daily Express.

Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 27 August The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January El Mercurio.

2.2 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Retrieved 31 May Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 10 October Associated Press.


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Retrieved 2 June Available here. IMF Working Paper. Israel Ministry of Finance. March Langdon 1 November Japan's Foreign Policy. Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 6 July BBC Monitoring. Retrieved 23 October Latin American Herald Tribune.


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Retrieved 1 June World Bank. United Nations Development Programme. The Fund for Peace. World Justice Project. Transparency International. In this sense, looking at what better performing OECD countries are doing can help inform policy development. The report also notes some bright spots for Canada, such as having one of the cleanest electricity production systems, and it praises recent climate progress both domestically e. Rachel Samson Carist Consulting , and author of the Green Growth chapter of the report, elaborates on recommendations about economic instruments and taxation:.

László Pintér | CEU People

The scale of investment needs requires a more strategic and creative approach to selecting infrastructure projects that considers multiple environmental, economic, and social criteria in an integrated manner. Monitor and mitigate the effects of fertilizer use on water quality in areas such as the Great Lakes, Lake Winnipeg and the St. Lawrence River basin. Increase the transparency and improve the implementation of strategic environmental assessment of major projects.

Ensure cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure projects consider environmental externalities, such as GHG emissions. Ensure taxation policy and government subsidies considers environmental externalities beyond climate change, such as water and air quality.

Environmental indicators, modelling and outlooks

Increase efforts and collaboration to strengthen implementation of national measures on waste water treatment. The OECD is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy. The OECD reviews essentially acts as an environmental audit where policies and performance are weighed against peer OECD countries, and recommendations are based on best practices. The scope and depth of the review allows for identifying areas of potential governance and enforcement improvements, as well as policy priorities, including in areas that might not be top-of-mind for Canadian policy makers.

Corruption remains a central and serious challenge for Tanzania, in terms of both good governance and for the entire social development. The levels of petty and grand corruption identified in international and domestic surveys continue to be of considerable concern and affect all sectors of the economy from public service delivery to natural resource exploitation, industrial production and business. The formal anti-corruption legislation and anti-corruption institutions in Tanzania are comparable to those of most other African countries.

Hence, in principle, there should also be good possibilities to initiate a far more effective struggle against corruption, but this requires a combination of political commitment and increased engagement from the media, civil society and the parliament. There have been some positive developments in recent years, but key challenges remain in implementing and enforcing the legislation.

Similarly, it is a great problem that very few of the corruption cases end up being prosecuted in the courts. New major opportunities and initiatives are underway. Steps have been taken to implement legislation and to meet the standards promoted by organisations such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative EITI.

This entails strengthening of domestic revenue and financial management, and positive developments within PFM reforms. Crucial, however, is a continued strengthening of the systems and mechanisms for openness, accountability and transparency in the public system. Tanzania is rich in natural resources and has one of the highest forest covers in East and Southern Africa. The recent discoveries of very large off-shore reserves of natural gas and potentially oil will make the extraction industry in Tanzania even more important. Current estimates are that when gas exploitation reaches full production, incomes from extraction alone will be more than three times current ODA to Tanzania.

Over the short to medium term, however, revenues from the natural gas will not be significant, and it is possible that the government may choose to mortgage its future income in order to satisfy short term needs. This tendency is already evident from the increase in government borrowing. Based on current experience from the mining industry, there is no certainty that the exploitation of natural gas will generate large numbers of new jobs, unless significant new policy measures are taken to ensure this.

Existing tax policies are being reviewed in order to use international experience to ensure national public revenues from exploitation of the gas reserves. The country has relied heavily on hydropower to meet its electricity needs, but in recent years, electricity production generation has proven insufficient, due partly to poor rainfall and depletion of hydro reservoirs. In some regions, this has created problems for the total food production and food security.

In early Tanzania adopted its first ever strategy to reduce the negative impact of climate change. Regional integration plays an increasingly important role, both politically and economically, in terms of reducing the risk of regional conflicts. Economically, it concerns pooling resources and markets for achieving economies of scale, with the possibility for specialization and greater competitiveness. Tanzania has sent troops to deal with the conflicts in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and this is seen as an expression of a willingness to assume such a role. EAC is critical to achieve regional economic integration.

The cooperation currently includes a customs union and a common market. The customs unions, when finally implemented, will lead to common external tariffs and free movement of goods within the region, and a common market will entail the creation of a single regional market with free movement of factors of production, including labour and capital.

Plans are in place for a monetary union, with the ultimate goal of a political federation. However, the main emphasis is currently on economic integration. The individual East African economies are still quite small.

Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned With

Increased regional economic integration thereby holds great potential for improved competitiveness and will also mean that the individual firms gain access to a larger domestic market. Tanzania has chosen a cautious approach to the integration process, as many Tanzanians desire more time to prepare the country for the free movement of goods, labour and capital. Sectors such as migration and land ownership are especially sensitive issues in Tanzania. Despite this, Tanzania is moving forward on the EAC reform agenda, and a number of promising steps have already been made.

However, it should not be ruled out that EAC may evolve unevenly, with some countries moving faster in the process of integration than Tanzania. This may change drastically over the next decade, where continued high growth and increased revenue from natural gas may reduce the importance of development assistance. Tanzania has been at the forefront of the global move towards enhancing aid effectiveness.

A central element of this effort was a move towards general budget support GBS to the government from While the share of GBS in the total aid package has not increased as much as expected, more than two-thirds of all reported ODA flows through government systems in various ways, and a third of this is GBS proper.

While overall ODA to Tanzania has continuously increased over the past five years, the proportion between modalities has changed, with GBS declining relatively, baskets remaining stable and project support increasing. Studies of the impact of development assistance to Tanzania show that it has made a real difference in the areas where the resources have actually been targeted.


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The aid, especially in the form of GBS and Basket modalities, has also led to demands and has contributed to improved national financial systems and stronger management and accountability in public administration. In cooperation with its development partners, Tanzania has been implementing core economic and public sector reforms for many years. After achieving good results in the early years, many of the core reforms have been stagnating in recent years. This can be partly explained by the fact that the second generation reforms are often more difficult to implement, and that capacity in the systems remains limited.

However, there is also a certain degree of reform fatigue within many parts of government apparatus. Report corruption.

Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development